[Published March 10, 2020 | Last Updated April 22, 2021]
- COVID-19 Resources
- Quit in Quarantine
- COVID-19 & Tobacco Co-Morbidity
- NOT Essential During Lockdowns
Resources on COVID-19
- World Health Organization and who is at risk Q&A?
- WHO FCTC Secretariat’s statement on May 4, 2020
- Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and their April 8, 2020 guidance to include tobacco questions for communicable disease outbreak investigations
- New England Journal of Medicine, and Cardiovascular Disease, Drug Therapy, and Mortality in Covid-19 published May 1, 2020
- British Medical Journal
- The Lancet
- JAMA Network
- Chinese Medical Journal
Resources from ASH
- ASH’s Statement on the Tobacco Industry and COVID-19 Pandemic
- Joint Blog with Cessation Expert Dr. Harry Lando on how to Quit while in Quarantine. And join us by posting your tips on how to #QuitInQuarantine on social media.
- The New York Times article on smoking and vaping risks associated with coronavirus from April 9, 2020
- ASH’s advocate toolkit for talking with media and governments about co-morbidity: COVID-19 and Tobacco Policy and Communications Toolkit, released April 25, 2020.
- ASH’s Response on May 8, 2020 to an opinion piece in The Hill about the FDA needing to pause e-cigarette sales during the pandemic. We note that states can do this with tobacco sales.
ASH began this webinar series as the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020 to fill an information gap that existed. We’ve continued the series to provide a platform for credible partners to share their timely research and resources.
These webinars are NOT intended for anyone affiliated with the tobacco industry or an organization that accepts tobacco industry funding (tobacco industry is defined as any organization involved in the marketing of nicotine products other than FDA-approved cessation treatment).
If you or your organization would like to present on an ASH webinar, please email Megan at email@example.com.
To make sure you can register for our next webinar, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Post FDA Lawsuit Decision – Plaintiffs & Partners Discussion
Speakers: Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Action on Smoking & Health), Dr. Valerie Yerger (African American Tobacco Control Leadership Council), Dr. Philip Gardiner (African American Tobacco Control Leadership Council), Joelle Lester (Public Health Law Center), Carol McGruder (African American Tobacco Control Leadership Council), Christopher Leung (Pollock Cohen LLP), Leonard Nelson (American Medical Association), Laurent Huber (Action on Smoking and Health).
Why Cessation is a Vital Part of Tobacco Policy
Speakers: Linda Bailey (President and CEO, North American Quitline Consortium, NAQC), Dr. Robert Totanes (Technical Officer on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization), Martin Raw (Director, International Centre for Tobacco Cessation; Visiting Professor, New York University School of Global Public Health). Combined slides are available here.
Women, Tobacco, and Human Rights
Speakers: Patricia Lambert (former President of International Network of Women Against Tobacco, INWAT), Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney, ASH), Dr. Mira B. Aghi (Behavioral Scientist and Communications Expert, board member of the Human Rights Tobacco Control Network, HRTCN), Soon-Young Yoon (Chair of the Board at the Women’s Environment and Development Organization and UN representative for the International Alliance of Women), and Dr. Daniel Thomas (Institut de Cardiologie France). Combined slides are available here.
Mobilizing to Overcome Tobacco Industry Interference in Lawmaking
Speakers: Traci Kennedy (Midwest States Strategist, Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights and the ANR Foundation), Primo Castro (Government Relations Director, American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network), Tim Gibbs (Legislative and Administrative Advocacy Consultant in California), and Daniel Fitzgerald (National Senior Manager of Advocacy, American Lung Association). Combined slides available here.
Tobacco Endgame – Spain
February 11, 2021 – Watch the recording of our Webinar on Tobacco Endgame – Spain here in speakers’ spoken language (both English and Spanish). Watch the full recording in Spanish. Watch the full recording in English.
Co-Hosts: Nofumadores.org, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica, Sociedad Española de Epidemiología, Sociedad Española de Salud Pública, Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica, Porque nosotros Sí!, Federación de Asociaciones de Enfermería Comunitaria y Atención Primeria, Asociación de Residentes de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Asociación pacientes EPOC, Asociación para la investigación del cancer de pulmón en mujeres, Fundación Lovexair, European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
Speakers: Laurent Huber (Executive Director, ASH), Dr. Adriana Blanco Marquizo (Head of Secretariat, WHO FCTC, read her full statement in English and Spanish here), Francisco Rodríguez Lozano (President, ENSP), John Mirisch (Beverly Hills City Councilmember), Chris Bostic (Policy Director, ASH), Raquel Fernández Megina (President, Nofumadores.org), Ruth Malone (Editor-in-Chief, Tobacco Control), Daniëlle Arnold (Policy Advisor, Health Funds for a Smokefree Netherlands), Richard Daynard (Distinguished Professor of Law, Northeastern University and President, Public Health Advocacy Institute), Esteve Fernandez (Director of the Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention at the Catalan Institute of Oncology and Director of the WHO Collaborating Center for Tobacco Control), and María Luisa Carcedo (Secretary of Health of the Federal Executive Commission of the PSOE). Combined slides are available here.
International Tools for Local Change: Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and Menthol (DC)
Co-Host: DC Tobacco-Free Coalition
Speakers: Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney, ASH), Laurent Huber (Executive Director, ASH), Rolando Andrewn (President, Breathe DC), Natasha Phelps (Lead Senior Staff Attorney for Minnesota Technical Assistance, Commercial Tobacco Control Programs, PHLC), Charles Debnam (Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Community Wellness Alliance), and Josh Brown (CEO, Brown Strategy). Combined slides are available here.
International Tools for Local Change: Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and Menthol
Co-Host: African American Tobacco Control Leadership Council (AATCLC)
Speakers: Carol McGruder (co-chair, AATCLC), Dr. Phillip Gardner (co-chair, AATCLC), Laurent Huber (Executive Director, ASH), Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney, ASH), Andrew Twinamatsiko (Lead Senior Staff Attorney for California Technical Assistance, PHLC), Tracy Brown (Project Manager, AATCLC), Calyn Kelley (Program Director, Bay Area Community Resources), and Kirsten Vinluan (Youth advocate, Youth tobacco advocacy and policy project, YTAPP). Combined slides are available here.
Educating the Public and Lawmakers about Tobacco Industry Interference
Speakers: Barbara Schillo, Ph.D. (Senior Vice President, Truth Initiative Schroeder Institute), Ann Boonn (Director of Research, the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids), Megan Arendt (Associate Director of Communications, ASH), and Julie Bisbee (Executive Director, Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust). Slides are available here.
U.S. Tobacco Industry Interference Index 2020
Speakers: Nichelle Gray (Program Coordinator, ASH), Doug Matheny (Programs Manager for State and Local Policy, TSET Health Promotion Research Center), and Kathleen Hoke (Director of the Legal Resource Center for Public Health Policy and Director of the Network for Public Health Law-Eastern Region at the University of MD Carey School of Law). Slides are available here.
Closing the Funding Gap for FCTC Implementation at the Global and National Level with co-host the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA)
Moderator: Leslie Rae-Ferat (Acting Executive Director, Framework Convention Alliance, FCA)
Speakers: Ryan Forrest (Policy and Advocacy Manager, Framework Convention Alliance, FCA), Robinah Kaitiritimba (Executive Director, ganda National Health Consumers’ Organisation, UNHCO), Rob Tripp (Senior Advisor to the WHO FCTC Convention Secretariat), Sara Rose Taylor (Senior Research Associate, University of Ottawa), Raphaëlle Faure (International Development Freelance Consultant). Slides are available here.
COVID-19’s Impact on the FCTC, Cessation, and Tobacco Policy with co-hosts Nofumadores.org and the International Centre for Tobacco Cessation
Speakers: Dr. Adriana Blanco Marquizo (Head of the Secretariat for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, FCTC), Martin Raw (Director at the International Centre for Tobacco Cessation, ICTC, and Visiting Professor at New York University, NYU, School of Global Public Health), and Raquel Fernández Megina (President of Nofumadores.org). Slides are available here.
Incorporating Human Rights into the WHO FCTC / Incorporación de los derechos humanos en el CMCT de la OMS
Speakers: Professor Steve Marks (François-Xavier Bagnoud Professor of Health and Human Rights at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health), Dr. Flavia Senkubuge (President at The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa), Pablo Analuisia (Clinical Psychologist at Central University of Ecuador and Specialist & Coordinator of Mental Health Promotion at the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador), and Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney at Action on Smoking and Health, ASH). Slides are available here.
WHO FCTC Article 19: Using the Judicial System to Fight Tobacco with co-hosts Corporate Accountability International (CAI) and the Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control (GGTC)
Speakers: Daniel Dorado Torres (Senior Latin America & International Policy Organizer at Corporate Accountability International, CAI), Davi Bressler (Attorney for Brazil, Solicitor General’s Office, Attorney General’s Office), Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney at Action on Smoking and Health, ASH, read her statement here), Debby Sy (Head of Global Public Policy and Strategy at the Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control, GGTC), Amos Hausner (Israeli attorney and tobacco control advocate). Slides are available here.
WHO FCTC Article 2.1: The Overlooked Article’s Impact on Endgame with co-hosts Health Funds for a Smokefree Netherlands and Menzies School of Health Research in Darwin, Australia
Speakers: Mary Assunta (Senior Policy Advisor at Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance, SEATCA, & Head of Global Research and Advocacy at Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control, GGTC), Dr. Marita Hefler (News Editor for BMJ Tobacco Control and a Senior Research Fellow at the Menzies School of Health Research in Darwin, Australia), Chris Bostic (Deputy Director for Policy at Action on Smoking and Health, ASH), and Guy Muller (International Public Affairs Consultant of the Dutch Cancer Society, DCS). Slides are available here.
Legal Centers and Cross-Sectional Collaboration to Drive Policy Change
Speakers: Blair Inniss (University of Maryland, Legal Resource Center), Jocelyn Collins (American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network), and Alanna Biblow (Maryland Department of Health. Slides are availabile here.
Using Cessation and an International Treaty to Strengthen the Health of DC Residents
Speakers: Dr. Carla Williams (Interim Director of the Howard University Cancer Center and Chair of the DC Tobacco-Free Coalition) and Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney, ASH). Slides are available here.
Addressing Cessation in Priority Populations
Speakers: Martin Raw (Director of the International Centre for Tobacco Cessation and Visiting Professor at New York University School of Global Public Health), Rachel Smolowitz and Michael Stavros (Sheppard Pratt Hospital), and Carolyn Dresler, MD, MPA (ASH Volunteer). Slides are available here. Additional resources and written Q&A responses are here.
Tobacco Product Waste Prevention and Mitigation
Speakers: Dr. Thomas Novotny (San Diego State University & Cigarette Butt Project), Hudson Kingston (Public Health Law Center), and Raquel Fernandez Megina of Nofumadores.org. Slides are available here.
Endgame Policy: Tobacco-Free Generation
Speakers: Chris Bostic (Deputy Director for Policy at ASH), Professor Jon Berrick (Emeritus Professor of Science, Mathematics, Yale-NUS College), and Professor Dick Daynard (President at Public Health Advocacy Institute at Northeastern University School of Law).
Improving Cessation Treatment through a Human Rights Approach
August 5, 2020 – Watch the recording of our Live Chat on Improving Cessation Treatment through a Human Rights Approach here. Read about the approach in this British Medical Journal (BMJ) blog co-authored by ASH.
Speakers: Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney at ASH) and Martin Raw (Director of the International Centre for Tobacco Cessation and Visiting Professor at New York University School of Global Public Health.)
U.S. Commercial Tobacco Policy and Enforcement during COVID-19 Shutdowns
Speakers: Jessica Grosz (Public Health Law Center Lead Senior Staff Attorney), Rachel Callanan (Public Health Law Center Senior Staff Attorney), and Chris Bostic (Deputy Director for Policy at ASH) moderating. Slides available here.
Endgame for Tobacco: The World We Want
Speakers: Chris Bostic (Deputy Director for Policy at Action on Smoking and Health, read his statement here), Wanda De Kanter (Pulmonologist, Netherlands Cancer Insitute), and Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney at Action on Smoking and Health, read her statement here). Slides are available here.
Combatting Tobacco Industry Interference Before, During & After the Age of COVID-19 (World No Tobacco Day)
Speakers: Mary Assunta (Head of Global Research and Advocacy at the Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control and Senior Policy Advisor at SEATCA), Nichelle Gray (Program Coordinator at Action on Smoking & Health), Doug Matheny (Programs and Initiatives Manager for State and Local Policy at the Oklahoma Health Promotion Research Center), and Dr. Kerstin Schotte (Medical Officer in the No Tobacco Unit at the World Health Organization). Slides are available here.
The Impact of COVID-19 on the African American Community, co-hosted with AATCLC
Speakers: Carol McGruder (Co-Chair of AATCLC, slides here), Dr. Carla Williams (Interim President of the Howard University Cancer Center, slides here), Natasha Phelps (Lead Senior Staff Attorney at the Public Health Law Center, slides here), and Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (Managing Attorney at ASH, slides here).
COVID-19 Co-Morbidity with Smoking: What We Know, What’s Needed
Speakers: Dr. Constantine Vardavas (editor of Tobacco Induced Diseases Journal), Dr. Flavia Senkubuge (President of The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa), and Dr. Jonathan Samet (Dean of the Colorado School of Public Health).
Tobacco Industry Policy Interference during COVID-19: Why Tobacco is NOT Essential
Speakers: Louis Laurence (Research Assistant with TobaccoTactics.org, part of the Tobacco Control Research Group at the University of Bath, within the Stopping Tobacco Organisations and Products, STOP, partnership), Dr. Alfred Munzer (pulmonologist, past President of the American Lung Association, current ASH Board Chair), and Tom Hird (Research Fellow University of Bath, UK; STOP: Stopping Tobacco Organizations and Products.) Read the STOP Partners’ statement available here.
The Impact of COVID-19 on African Americans and Cancer Treatment
Speakers: Dr. Carla Williams (Interim Director of the Howard University Cancer Center and Chair of the DC Tobacco-Free Coalition) and Liz Furgurson (ASH).
Tobacco Cessation, Production & Sales in Light of COVID-19
What COVID-19 Lockdowns Mean for Tobacco Control
Speakers: Chris Bostic (ASH) and Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (ASH)
How to #QuitInQuarantine
April 3, 2020 – Instagram Live – Watch the recording here, on how to #QuitInQuarantine.
Speakers: Charles Debnam (Deputy Chief Executive Officer at Community Wellness Alliance and cessation expert) and Liz Furgurson (COO of ASH)
Coronavirus, Human Rights and Tobacco
April 2, 2020 – Watch our Coronavirus, Human Rights and Tobacco Webinar
Speakers: Dr. Carolyn Dresler, Laurent Huber (ASH), Kelsey Romeo-Stuppy (ASH), and Chris Bostic (ASH). Read Dr. Dresler’s statement here.
Smokers and COVID-19
March 20, 2020 – Facebook Live – Watch Laurent Huber discuss smokers and COVID-19
Tips to Quit in Quarantine
Please pass this along to the smokers in your life.
[videos in 14 languages from Diaspora TV Switzerland on quitting]
[video in Spanish on quitting from Stoptabaco 31 mayo 2020]
As the world grapples with the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), one risk factor that has not been covered widely in the media is smoking status. There’s little evidence that smokers are more likely to be infected by coronavirus. It is highly contagious for everyone. However, similar to people with diabetes or a history of lung or heart disease, smokers have a significantly higher risk of experiencing severe or life-threatening symptoms if they do contract the virus. Like other groups with heightened risk, smokers should take extra precautions to avoid exposure, and if they experience symptoms, go to the doctor and get tested immediately.
In addition, the CDC recommends that those in higher risk groups should:
- Stock up on supplies.
- Take everyday precautions to keep space between yourself and others.
- When you go out in public, keep away from others who are sick, limit close contact and wash your hands often.
- Avoid crowds as much as possible.
- Avoid cruise travel and non-essential air travel.
During a COVID-19 outbreak in your community, stay home as much as possible to further reduce your risk of being exposed.
Even if there is no known outbreak near you, the CDC urges those over 80 to follow the last bullet and stay home as much as possible.
ASH is all about health for everyone. There’s no evidence that tobacco has anything to do with the advent or spread of the Coronavirus, but it does seem to compound the risk of serious ramifications to COVID-19 (the disease that results from infection by the Coronavirus). If you have loved ones that smoke, please ensure that they’re aware of the increased risk so that they can take extra precautions.
Additional Resources to Quit
- Do you smoke or vape? Here’s why Covid-19 means you should quit right now. By Professor Luke Clancy
- Effective options for quitting smoking during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
- The New York Times’ Compilation of quit resources
- Minnesota Department of Health on COVID-19 and quitting smoking
- California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) video on benefits of quitting smoking and vaping during the coronavirus outbreak
World Health Organization Resources on COVID-19 and Tobacco Use
- June 30, 2020 – WHO Scientific Brief on Smoking and COVID-19
- May 29, 2020 – WHO Report on Covid-19 and NCDs
- Intersection between COVID-19 and NCDs (including smoking)
- Q&A on COVID-19 and Smoking
- Risks of using tobacco and water pipes
- Graphic on cessation
- Assessing National Health Research Systems in the WHO African Region
- WHO statement May 11, 2020 debunking claims of nicotine protection from COVID-19
Resources on COVID-19 and Tobacco Use
- Where you live in the US matters: High smoking rates and limited hospital bed capacity in rural communities create a dangerous situation and underscores health inequities. Report from Truth Initiative August 5, 2020
- STOP Partners’ COVID-19 Action Center and Monitoring Briefs on Tobacco Industry misdeeds during the pandemic
- The Union’s Tobacco Control Department is producing a regular scientific brief analysing the current science—and any related controversies—regarding COVID-19 and smoking. All issues (latest is June 29, 2020) are here.
- University of California – San Francisco Benioff Children’s Hospital researchers found, “Recent evidence indicates that smoking is associated with a higher likelihood of COVID-19 progression, including increased illness severity, ICU admission or death,” said Adams. “Smoking may have significant effects in young adults, who typically have low rates for most chronic diseases.” Read their July 12, 2020 study here
- British Medical Journal’s ongoing compilation of research
- The Lancet: “Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19” journal article and “COVID-19 exacerbating inequalities in the US“
- Tobacco Induced Diseases, and a Spain-specific article. Highlighting errors of French “study” that hypothesized nicotine could protect from COVID-19. COVID-19 lockdown and the tobacco product ban in South Africa.
- Cochrane Library and their cessation during COVID-19 resources
- CIET Uruguay (in Spanish)
- Statement from The Union
- SRNT: COVID-19 and Smoking
- Statement from Alliance Contre Le Tabac rebutting a French “study” testing nicotine as “protection” from COVID-19 infection. Statement on April 27, 2020 from the French Government about the risk of misinterpretation and smoking. STOP Partners’ Review of Controversial French Studies on Link Between Smoking and COVID-19. Analysis in Tobacco Induced Diseases Journal debunking of the “study” on May 5, 2020. Review in Qeios of issues with the “study.” Statement from WHO refuting the protection claims.
- Factsheet from Swiss Association for Smoking Prevention: COVID‐19 and Smoking: ongoing rapid assessment of the available evidence
- American Cancer Society (ACS)’s review of the science around COVID-19 and smoking and vaping
- Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids: The Tobacco Industry is Exploiting the COVID-19 Crisis and their Digital Advocacy Center Campaign Tools for COVID-19 and Tobacco. CTFK’s new analysis released 5/14/20 “Big Tobacco is Exploiting COVID-19 to Market Its Harmful Products.“
- TobaccoWatcher, the world’s first automated, artificial intelligence-driven media monitoring and intelligence site dedicated to tobacco control, has been updated to better inform on topics as they relate to the COVID-19 pandemic. Tobacco Watcher allows you to search articles, set alerts, and perform analyses, and has just implemented a new filter in the search page that allows users to filter results that are related to COVID-19 and tobacco.To see how this new filter works, visit www.tobaccowatcher.org and enter a search term (for example, “tax”). If you want to see only articles that say something about tax AND COVID-19, click on “include” for the COVID-19 filter on the left.
- Spanish webinar from Institut Català d’Oncologia ICO, titled “Tabaco y COVID-19“
- ENSP Factsheet on “COVID-19 pandemic and smoking behaviour” in English; in French.
- John Maa, M.D., past-president at San Francisco Marin Medical Society and Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, Ph.D., professor of Pediatrics at Stanford University, respond in The Hill to the French “study” with a piece on May 11, 2020 titled “Suggestion that smoking protects from COVID-19 may be dangerous to public health.”
- “Smoking Makes COVID-19 Worse: UCSF Analysis Finds a Near Doubling in Risk of Disease Progression” May 12, 2020
- Video in Spanish about smoking and COVID-19: vídeo del webinar
- Johns Hopkins University video on tobacco and COVID-19
Jurisdictions Removing or Limiting Tobacco Products from “Essential Business” Distinction, in Turn Banning the Sale of Tobacco Products
- Botswana – Tobacco products will not be sold or imported during the lockdown restrictions. Read more here. Supportive statement from local advocates here.
- India – Excluded products from essential items list, are not specified. Only included items are. Tobacco products are not included here. In addition, two states, U.P. and Haryana have banned all smokeless tobacco products to prevent spitting during this COVID-19 period.
- Israel – Government regulation included specific instructions on what would account for essential business that should stay open and what would define as essential products that could be sold. Tobacco and smoking products are not included. (Regulation in Hebrew; English translation of section on tobacco)
- South Africa – Regulations as published under the Disaster Management Act for COVID-19 with amendments are found here, and also tracked here. Cigarettes and tobacco products are not listed as an essential item. (Review in Tobacco Induced Diseases here)
Jurisdictions with Public Smoking Bans to Reduce Transmission
- India – In Delhi, spitting and tobacco consumption in public places draws a fine. Read more here. In addition, two states, U.P. and Haryana have banned all smokeless tobacco products to prevent spitting during this COVID-19 period.
- Spain – On July 30, 2020, the Minister of Health requested the urgent prohibition of smoking on terraces of hospitality premises, and all outdoor public places. Read more here.
- Turkey – On November 11, 2020, a nationwide smoking ban in public places was announced to stem the spread of the coronavirus. Read more here.
Jurisdictions Reducing Tobacco Sales Density
- Kanesatake and Kahnawake Territories (in Canada) – “In an effort to encourage social distancing and protect Kanesatake’s population during the COVID-19 outbreak, no tobacco, cannabis or alcohol products will be sold on the territory until further notice,” read more here.
- Vietnam – Dedicated tobacco shops are required to close just like any other kind of shops. But supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, etc. which sell essential goods (foods, medicines) are open, and smokers can buy tobacco products in those stores.
- Wisconsin, USA – Vape, smoking, and CBD shops must close (and cannot provide delivery), but sales can continue at other stores like grocery or gas stations as they are considered essential businesses. Read their FAQ here.
Note: We strongly recommend any government taking this action to also provide full access to cessation and cessation treatment.
Please email any updates/omissions to us at email@example.com
- Read this Editorial in the British Medical Journal on tobacco sales during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- SPANISH resources on why tobacco products should NOT be essential during COVID-19: here and here.
If you found these resources useful and want to ensure ASH can continue to provide them, please consider making a tax-deductible donation today. We truly appreciate any support you can provide!